(ACVR2B, Activin receptor type-2B)
ACE-031, also referred to as ACVR2B or ActRIIB-IgG1, is a synthetically produced protein that was originally developed by two bio-pharmaceutical companies, namely Acceleron and Shire, for its potential ability to inhibit myostatin and other naturally occurring proteins that limit muscle growth.
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ACE-031 is technically a protein. It’s categorized in the protein family. ACE-031 is also called ACVR2B, in many texts. This protein is currently being tested to see if we can utilize it to build strength in animals and perhaps eventually, in humans. There have been some promising studies that imply it can be used therapeutically to destroy other proteins and molecules that limit muscle growth and muscle strength. Since ACE-031 is a human-engineered protein, it’s not actually part of the proteome project.
ACE-031 is actually formed when a bit of the ActRIIB receptor and the antibody are fused together. This fusion makes a pho version of the ActRIIB that will take down proteins like myostatin and the other types of molecules that prohibit the muscle’s ability to strengthen, regenerate, and grow. Basically, ACE-031 is used to make muscles not understand that there is a natural period in which we don’t produce muscle mass by blocking out the myostatin, stopping it from communicating with the muscle cells.
Only in the last decade or so has ACE-031 been tested on humans. In a 2012 study, it was found to increase muscle mass in postmenopausal women after just a single dosing. For the purpose of this study, it was determined that all of the subjects were “healthy” and didn’t have any form of surgery in the past few months. There are various reports and studies proving that the use of ACE-031 drastically increases the muscular growth in animals, specifically in mammals.
The most common side effects realized from treatment of ACE-031 were nose bleeds, gum bleeds, and general dilation of blood vessels. It turns out that not only do the muscles go through a quick growth spurt, but so do the blood vessels. This leads one to wonder whether or not the protein-like molecule should be used as a clotting agent for those with an iron deficiency.
There have been other undesired side effects on humans. In one particular study in 2016, it was found that males were having adverse effects when it came to their lean mass, fat mass and BWD. The loss of weight in subjects, in conjunction with the bloody noses, resulted in the discontinuation of the study. It was found that ACE-031 would still be a promising treatment for muscular dystrophy in children if the undesired side effects could be reduced or eliminated.
Administration and Storage
Most of the time, ACE-031 can be acquired over the internet in Peptide powder form. It’s assumed these packages will never be stored in a typical room environment for more than three months and will be stored in a freezer if you intend to hang on to it for longer than that. The product is to be obtained for research purposes only. It’s important to keep the human-engineered substance out of the reach of children and refrain from ingesting without becoming familiar with the experimental studies published so far.
The eventual goal of ACE-031 is to treat muscular dystrophy. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal genetic disorder that can be quite painful due to the slow weakening of muscles over time. Patients lose motor skills and all of their strength until they’re active mind is trapped in the useless shell that is their body. The United States FDA approved ACE-031 to be tested to treat the inhumane genetic disorder.
Since then, a couple of companies have teamed up to prove out and commercialize the drug. Since well over a million people suffer from muscular dystrophy worldwide, there are other countries throwing their weight behind the find-a-cure movement.
It was hypothesized that ACE-031 would act as a decoy receptor for the catabolic proteins, specifically myostatin, and bind to them in an effort to keep them away from muscle fibers. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine if ACE-031 is an effective treatment for children who have Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD).
What is Myostatin?
Myostatin, abbreviated GDF-8 (Growth Differentiation Factor-8), is a protein naturally produced in mammals, which acts on muscle cells as an inhibitor of myogenesis (differentiation and growth of muscle cells). The gene encoding myostatin was discovered in 1997 by geneticists Se-Jin Lee and Alexandra McPherron who produced a strain of mutant mice that lack the gene. These scientists produced a strain of mice that lacked the gene and had approximately twice as much muscle as normal mice.